Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Clinical Pediatrics is one of the medical practices which evolved from the science of healing i.e., Medicine. In clinical pediatrics, it deals with the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment for a certain age group, from newborn baby to the adolescent. The Pediatric Medicine stands for an observational and therapeutic amendment in healing the children.  

The specialization for healing the children is a Pediatrician. In practice of Pediatrics, a pediatrician undergoes 5 to 6 years of graduation program and specializes in a specific topic in a child’s health for 1 to 2 years more.

The major conditions treated under Clinical Pediatrics are,

  • ADHD
  • Alternative Medicine
  • Antibiotics
  • Bicycle Injuries
  • Childhood Obesity
  • Head Lice
  • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccine
  • Managing Hypertension
  • New Combination Vaccines
  • New Diabetes Treatment
  • Pediatric Emergencies
  • Practice Management
  • Resident Education
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Child abuse or child maltreatment is psychological, physical, or sexual maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, mainly by the caregiver or a parent. Any act or failure to act by caregiver or parent towards their child may result in potential harm to the child's health, survival, development or dignity in-home, schools or organizations.

WHO differentiates child maltreatment into four types?

  • Physical abuse
  • Sexual abuse
  • Emotional and psychological abuse
  • Neglect
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Child Trauma is a sudden onset action for unexpected things especially bad things that will result by giving a lot of pain in the head or neck region. It may be in the form of migraines, tension-type headaches, and cluster headaches. A prolonged severe headache may lead to an increased risk of depression. In general, the symptoms and diagnosis process of headaches in children is almost similar to that of adults.

Approximately 1% of children who visit the emergency department are for headaches. Only 4-7% of kids with a headache have serious effects. The most common type of headaches seen in children is a post-traumatic headache, headaches caused by cold, brain abscesses, brain bleeds, meningitis, and ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction.

  • Pain medications: Acetaminophen and opioids
  • Antidepressants: Antidepressants such as dopamine and serotonin, which affect the neurotransmitters in the brain.
  • Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA): Children who are 4-6 years old can use it with the help of a nurse or parent.
  • Epidural analgesia: Epidural analgesia can be performed during major surgeries such as spinal surgeries, abdominal and lower extremity surgeries for postoperative pain control.
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Adolescent medicine is a subspecialty of medicine that focuses on the emotional, physical and behavioral care of patients who are in the adolescent period (ages of 11 and 21 years) of development. The adolescent period begins at puberty and lasts until growth has stopped. Adolescent health specialists must complete at least 4 years of medical school and 3 years of residency training in general pediatrics, family medicine or internal medicine.

These medical doctors provide complete care and treatment on various medical conditions for adolescents and young adults, which include

  • Substance abuse
  • Acne
  • Sports medicine and orthopedic problems
  • Menstrual disorders
  • Birth control
  • Unintended pregnancy
  • Sexually transmitted disease (STD)
  • Eating disorders
  • Delayed or precocious puberty
  • Personality disorders
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Depression
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Certain types of schizophrenia
  • Drug addiction, alcohol, and tobacco usage
  • Popular Adolescent health centers
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Neonatology is a medical subspecialty of pediatrics that offer medical care to newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn. Neonatologists focus on the care of newborn infants during the neonatal period and offer special medical care to those infants who are ill or low birth weight, congenital malformations, intrauterine growth restriction, (birth defects), sepsis, pulmonary hypoplasia or birth asphyxia.

According to the special issue of “Modern Healthcare” The average pediatrician salary ranges from $161,000 to $229,000, but the average salary for a neonatologist is about $225,000 to $310,000.

  • Track 5-1. Neonatal Research
  • Track 5-2. Neonatal Neurology
  • Track 5-3. Neonatal Surgery
  • Track 5-4. Neonatal Nutrition
  • Track 5-5. Neonatal Syndromes
  • Track 5-6. Neonatal Infections
  • Track 5-7. Genetic Disorders
  • Track 5-8. Congenital Malformations and Birth Complications
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Neonatal nursing is a subspecialty under Neonatology which deals with birth problems of a neonate/infant such as prematurity, birth defects, infection, cardiac malformations, surgical problems, and developmental disorders. Neonatal nursing generally encompasses the care for infants who experience problems soon after birth, and it also encompasses care for infants who experience long-term problems related to prematurity or illness after birth.

Major practices under neonatal nursing,

  • Neonatal Intensive Care (NICU)
  • Acute Care
  • Advanced Nursing Practices
  • Pediatric Emergency Nursing
  • Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC)
  • Swaddling
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It is a medical subspecialty focuses on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for adverse effects or poisoning due to occupational and environmental toxicants, medications, envenomations, and biological agents. Medical toxicologists treat various problems including acute or chronic poisoning, drug overdoses, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), substance abuse, chemical exposures, and industrial accidents.

Medical toxicology is officially recognized as a subspecialty of medicine by the American Board of Medical Specialties.  Medical toxicologists are physicians, whose primary specialization is in occupational medicine, emergency medicine, or pediatrics. Medical Toxicologists work in a variety of settings including clinical laboratories, forensic laboratories, government agencies, industry and commerce, medical schools, universities, clinical training sites, emergency departments, inpatient units, and intensive care units.

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Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM): It’s a medical subspecialty of both pediatrics and emergency medicine. It involves the care of children’s acute or critical illnesses and injuries that require abrupt medical attention.

Basically emergency physicians practice in hospital emergency departments, pre-hospital settings via intensive care units and emergency medical services and urgent care clinics. Sub-disciplines of emergency medicine include medical toxicology, disaster medicine, ultrasonography, hyperbaric medicine, critical care medicine, palliative care, sports medicine, or aerospace medicine. Yearly pediatric emergency physicians in the U.S. make an average of $273,683.

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Pediatric infectious disease conditions it involves in treating all the aspects of infectious diseases and studies the pathogens, prevention, transmission and therapy of many diseases, including bacteria, mycobacteria, parasites, and viruses. A medical specialist in pediatric infectious diseases has expertise in a wide range of infectious agents, from the viruses and bacteria that cause common respiratory tract infections to the more serious illnesses caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Some of the pediatric infectious diseases and issues include,

  • Bone infections
  • Bacterial infections
  • Viral infections
  • Joint infections
  • Skin infections
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Production of safe and effective vaccines
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Pediatric Allergy and Immunology is an important subject to be learned in order to concentrate on factors related to a child’s immune system. They promote screening, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a wide array of immune issues including allergies to food, medicines, chemicals, and plants, severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis, primary immune deficiencies, and acquired immune disorders) allergy based dermatitis and inherited defects that alter or impair immune response.

  • Track 10-1. Pediatric Immunotherapy
  • Track 10-2. Immunodeficiency Disorders
  • Track 10-3. Pediatric allergy nursing
  • Track 10-4. Pediatric Infectious Diseases
  • Track 10-5. HIV in Children
  • Track 10-6. Food Allergy in Children
  • Track 10-7. Nutritional Disorders
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Pediatric dermatology is a branch of dermatology deals with a wide variety of pediatric skin conditions, using the latest treatments and procedures. Pediatric dermatologists treat children from birth through adolescence. A Pediatric dermatologist must complete the following training programs during their education:

  • Four years of medical school
  • One year of internship
  • Three years of dermatology residency or pediatric residency
  • Post-one-year fellowship

Pediatric dermatologists provide medical care for the following services:

  • Medical treatment for skin, nails, and hair
  • Treatment for various skin infections and conditions, including psoriasis, vascular birthmarks, pigmented birthmarks, vitiligo, congenital skin disorders, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, vitiligo, hives, and warts

Minor surgical procedures, including laser treatments, cosmetic surgeries, skin biopsies, and surgical removal of skin lesions.

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Pediatric Dentistry is a branch of dentistry deals with the oral care and health of children from infancy through adolescence. This sub-specialty was brought into public by the American Dental Association, Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons and Royal College of Dentists of Canada. Pediatric dentists must complete 4 years of dental school and 2 additional years of training in dentistry for infants, children, and teens.

Responsibilities of a pediatric dentist include:

  • To ensure safe and effective oral care is provided
  • Promoting dental health for children and educating parents
  • Diagnosing oral diseases
  • Offering preventive dental care
  • Interpreting diagnostic tests and x-rays
  • To ensure the safe administration of anesthetics
  • Monitoring teeth and jaws; growth and development
  • Performing surgical procedures on the teeth
  • Filing or repairing of decaying teeth
  • Fixing dental injuries
  • Repair fractured or displaced teeth
  • Management of gum diseases and potential risk conditions including ulcers, mucoceles, short frenulum, and pediatric periodontal disease

As per the reports of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, due to an increase in the baby population by 2024, job growth for pediatrics dentists will increase by approximately 20%. The mean salary for an individual pediatric dentist is about $175,000 per year in the US.

  • Track 12-1. Orthodontics
  • Track 12-2. Periodontology
  • Track 12-3. Dental Emergencies
  • Track 12-4. Restorative Dentistry
  • Track 12-5. Oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • Track 12-6. Fluoride Fluoridation in Dentistry
  • Track 12-7. Cosmetic dentistry
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It’s a branch of medicine deals with the diagnosis and management of severe conditions needing sophisticated organ support and invasive monitoring. It is a field of pediatrics with a focus on the extreme care of the critically ill or injured children. Pediatric critical care can be seen in diverse environments and medical specialties such as general intensive care units, trauma intensive care units, surgical intensive care units, cardiothoracic intensive care units, and coronary care units, etc.

Pediatric Critical care common focus areas include cardiac disease, lung injury, brain injury, and renal replacement therapy.

  • Track 13-1. Anesthesia and Intensive Care
  • Track 13-2. Critical Care Paramedic
  • Track 13-3. Inflavonoid Intensive Care
  • Track 13-4. Intensive Care Units
  • Track 13-5. Surgical Critical Care
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Its medical subspecialty deals with endocrine disorders. The most common diseases dealt with by Pediatric endocrinologists are type 1 diabetes, growth disorders and sexual development in children. These primary physicians are majorly involved in the medical care of infants and children with intersex disorders, hypoglycemia, bone metabolism, variations of puberty, adrenal, thyroid, and pituitary gland problems, lipid metabolism, adolescent gynecology, or inborn errors of metabolism.

Pediatric Endocrinologists are medical doctors who completed a 3 years fellowship following completion of a 3-year pediatrics residency.

  • Track 14-1. Adrenal disease
  • Track 14-2. Diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia
  • Track 14-3. Disorders of glucose homeostasis
  • Track 14-4. Hypothalamic and pituitary disease
  • Track 14-5. Neonatal endocrinology
  • Track 14-6. Puberty and adrenarche
  • Track 14-7. Thyroid disease
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Pediatric gastroenterology is a sub-specialty of both pediatrics and gastroenterology. Pediatric Gastroenterologists treat the diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and pancreas of children from infancy until the age of adolescent. The major diseases it is concerned with are persistent vomiting, acute diarrhea, gastritis, and problems with the development of the gastric tract.

Globally, each of the 140 million children born yearly experience diarrhea in the first 5 years of life.

  • Track 15-1. Celiac Disease
  • Track 15-2. Chronic Diarrhea
  • Track 15-3. Eosinophilic Esophagitis EoE
  • Track 15-4. Ulcerative Colitis
  • Track 15-5. Gastro esophageal Reflux Disease GERD
  • Track 15-6. Congenital Diarrheal Disorders
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It deals with the health of the vagina, uterus, vulva, and ovaries of infants, children, and adolescents.

Observed that there are various common pediatric gynecologic conditions such as Hernias, Intersex conditions, Amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period), Abnormal vaginal bleeding, Vulvovaginitis (pathogenic infection), Vulvitis (inflammation of the vulva), Breast abnormalities, Contraception, Pregnancy, Precocious puberty (changes indicative of puberty, including pubic hair, development of breast buds, and a growth spurt), Labial adhesion, Ovarian mass (30–70% of neonates with ovaries have cysts, Ovarian masses in children are typically cystic, but 1% are malignant ovarian cancers).

Common pediatric gynecologic complaints include pre-menarche bleeding, vaginal discharge, accounts of sexual abuse and itching.

  • Track 16-1. Genitalia and Examining Techniques
  • Track 16-2. Ultrasonography in Pediatric Gynecology
  • Track 16-3. Vulvovaginal Disorders
  • Track 16-4. Hyperandrogenism in an Adolescent
  • Track 16-5. Menstrual Dysfunction in Adolescents
  • Track 16-6. Gynecologic Tumours in Pediatric Patients
  • Track 16-7. Genital Trauma in the Pediatric Female
  • Track 16-8. Endoscopy in Pediatric Gynecology
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Pediatric hematology is a combination of both pediatrics and hematology. It deals with the therapeutic study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of various types of blood disorders in children. A medical practitioner specialized in this field of pediatric hematology is called pediatric hematologist, majorly concerned with the disorders of leukocytes, erythrocytes, vascular biology, immunology both benign and malignant, platelets, hemostatic mechanisms, hematologic oncology, anemia, and lymphoma, etc.

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Pediatric Nephrology is a combination of both Pediatrics and Nephrology. Pediatric Nephrology deals with the diagnosis and management of kidney-related complications such as urinary tract infections, acute and chronic renal failure, bowel bladder dysfunction, congenital renal anomalies, nephrotic syndrome, tubular disorders, chronic glomerulonephritis, and systemic severe and progressive renal disorders.

Pediatric Nephrologists treat children from newborn through late adolescence and in youthful adulthood too with numerous infections such as following.

  • Dialysis
  • Kidney biopsies
  • Kidney transplantation
  • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

Pediatric nephrologists consist of a team of specialized nurses, nutritionists, and social workers, all committed to the care of children affected with kidney diseases. They closely work with other physicians such as pediatric urologists, pediatric radiologists, and pediatric surgeons.

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Pediatric Neurology mots popularly known as Child neurology refers to a subspecialty of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of neurological conditions in neonates, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Pediatric neurology is concerned with the analysis and management of problems as well as treats all kinds of diseases and disorders of the spinal cord, brain, CNS, autonomic nervous system muscles and blood vessels that may affect individuals.

Generally, about 40% to 50% of the patients treated in typical pediatric neurology settings have epilepsy, while 20% are suffering from headaches and 20% have learning difficulties or developmental problems.

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Pediatric nursing is the medical care of neonates and infants up to adolescents, for the most part in a day-clinic or an in-patient hospital. Pediatric Nurses perform physicals check-ups, child immunizations, screening Diagnosis and treatment of illnesses, recommending medications, regulate the life of the child in the family, school and community.

Pediatric Intensive Care provides care for infants, children, and adolescents who become critically ill or injured which include conditions like Severe infection, Poisoning, Drug overdose, Trauma, Extensive surgery, Congenital abnormalities, Immunological disorders. Neonatal nursing is a branch of human services that focus on giving support to newborn premature babies or experiencing medical issues, such as birth defects, diseases, or heart deformities. Numerous neonatal nurses work in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), giving exceedingly specific medicinal care to the new-borns at risk.

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Breast milk offers the best nutrition during these first months of growth when compared to other foods. Breastmilk helps in preventing anemia, obesity, diabetes and sudden infant death syndrome; and it promotes immunity, digestive health, and intelligence. Breastfeeding is hardly contraindicated, but it is not suggested for mothers being treated for tuberculosis, cancer, substance abuse, HIV and leukemia.

Proper infant nutrition demands essential substances (minerals, vitamins, proteins or fluids) that support organ growth, development, function, and resistance to infections and diseases.

Infants must breastfeed for the first six months of life to attain all necessary developments and growth. So to fulfill all the nutritional requirements infants must receive sufficient adequate nutrition and digestible foods, continuing to breastfeeding up to 2 years or more.

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Pediatric oncology is the branch of medicine deals with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children. Globally, it is estimated that childhood cancer has a mortality rate of about 96,000 per year out of more than 175,000 affected children. In developed countries, childhood cancer has a mortality of approximately 20% of cases and it is 80-90% in the underdeveloped countries.

The most common cancers in children are

  • Brain tumors (18%)
  • Leukemia (32%)
  • Lymphomas (11%)

Other, less common childhood cancers are

  • Neuroblastoma (6%)
  • Wilms tumor (5%)
  • Retinoblastoma (3%)
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4%)
  • Germ cell tumors (5%)
  • Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma (3%)
  • Osteosarcoma (3%)
  • Ewing sarcoma (1%)
  • Pleuropulmonary blastoma (lung or pleural cavity)
  • Hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

Global Organizations that focused on childhood cancer and/or support programs include:

  • Childhood Cancer Canada
  • CLIC Sargent and the Children's Cancer
  • Leukaemia Group (United Kingdom)
  • Child Cancer Foundation (New Zealand)
  • Children's Cancer Recovery Foundation (United States)
  • American Childhood Cancer Organization(United States)
  • Childhood Cancer Support (Australia)
  • The Hayim Association (in Israel)
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Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-specialty of ophthalmology deals with the diseases of the eye, vision care and development in children. Pediatric ophthalmologists are the physicians who must complete at least 4 years of medical school 

  • 1-year internship
  • 3-year residency in ophthalmology
  • And 1-2 year post-fellowship in pediatric ophthalmology

Pediatric ophthalmologists are qualified in managing various eye problems, performing critical eye surgeries and suggesting eyeglasses and contact lenses to the children. Pediatric ophthalmologists are specifically trained to handle various eye disorders, such as eye infections; conjunctivitis, strabismus, amblyopia, ptosis, blocked tear ducts, nystagmus, retinopathy of prematurity, pediatric cataracts, visual inattention, abnormal vision development, pediatric glaucoma, orbital tumours, genetic disorders, congenital malformations, refractive errors (myopia , hyperopia and astigmatism), accommodative insufficiency, convergence insufficiency, asthenopia, dyslexia and attention deficit disorder.

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Pediatric pulmonology is a medical subspecialty involved in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract diseases. Pediatric pulmonology is a blend of both pediatrics and pulmonology. Pediatric pulmonologists are specifically trained in disease conditions of the chest, asthma, pneumonia, emphysema, tuberculosis and other complex chest infections. Pulmonology is popularly known as chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas.

Pulmonologists perform both scientific and clinical research of the respiratory system; it varies from the composition of the respiratory epithelium to the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, scientific research takes place to identify the causes and probable treatment procedures in severe disease conditions such as pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer.

Pediatric pulmonologists often perform the following laboratory and surgical procedures.

  • Laboratory investigation of blood
  • Spirometry
  • Pulmonary Function Tests spirometry
  • Chest X-rays
  • CT scanning
  • Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)
  • Scintigraphy and other methods of nuclear medicine
  • Positron emission tomography
  • Sleep apnea
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Diagnosis of illnesses, injuries, and diseases of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults by using imaging techniques and equipment (artificial Windows / light panels and positioning equipment such as sponges, weights) is called pediatric radiology.

Pediatric radiologists must complete

  • A degree from a medical school
  • 1 year or more of clinical medicine training 
  • 4 years of training in diagnostic radiology
  • 2 additional years of training in the diagnosis of infants and children using imaging equipment.

Pediatric radiologists must have additional certification from the American Board of Radiology. Pediatric radiologists are highly qualified to choose best imaging techniques such as x-ray, NMR, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT), to treat various medical and surgical problems in children.

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Pediatric Rheumatology is a medical subspecialty deals with the diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic diseases. Specialized physicians in pediatric rheumatology are called pediatric rheumatologist’s deals with clinical problems involve autoimmune diseases, joints, soft tissues, vasculitis, and heritable connective tissue disorders in child, infant, and adolescent.

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Surgeons who perform surgeries on infants, children, and adolescents are called Pediatric Surgeons. Neonatal surgery and fetal surgery are the subspecialties of pediatric surgery. Pediatric surgeons are the medical doctors who must complete the following training programs during their education:

  • At least 4 years of medical school
  • Five additional years of general surgery
  • Post two additional years of residency training in pediatric surgery
  • Certification by the American Board of Surgery

Major pediatric surgeries include,

  • Pediatric oncological surgery
  • Pediatric cardiothoracic surgery:  heart and lung transplantation in children
  • Pediatric nephrological surgery: kidneys and ureters surgeries in children
  • Pediatric neurosurgery:  surgeries on brain, central nervous system, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves of children
  • Pediatric urological surgery:  surgery involving urinary bladder and other structures below the kidney of children
  • Pediatric emergency surgery: fetuses or embryos surgeries in children
  • Pediatric hepatological and gastrointestinal surgery: surgeries involving liver and intestinal transplantation in children
  • Pediatric orthopedic surgery: surgeries on muscle and bone in children
  • Pediatric plastic and reconstructive surgery

Common diseases in children that may require pediatric surgery include:

  • Childhood tumors
  • Congenital malformations
  • Chest wall deformities
  • Separation of conjoined twins
  • Abdominal wall defects
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Pediatric urology is a medical subspecialty concerned with the disorders of children's genitals or urinary tract. Pediatric urologists offer care for both boys and girls from infants, to adolescents.

Pediatric urologists are medical doctors who must complete

  • At least 4 years of medical school
  • 1 to 2 years of surgical residency
  • At least 4 additional years of residency in general urology
  • 1 to 3 years of additional fellowship training in pediatric urology

Pediatric Urologists treat various conditions and disorders associated with reproductive organs and testes, which include bladder control problems, undescended testes, hypospadias, epispadias, chordee, bladder and kidney stones, minor malformations of the penis, phimosis, antenatal hydronephrosis, neurogenic bladder, urinary obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux, kidney cancers, repair of genitourinary trauma, birth defects and genitourinary malformations.

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A therapeutic and surgical speciality concerned about the diagnosis, management, and treatment of disorders, illnesses and diseases or disarranges of the ear, nose, throat (ENT) and related structures of head and neck, including the sinuses, larynx (voice box), oral cavity, and upper pharynx (mouth and throat) in children comes under Otolaryngology normally called ENT.

If the child needs surgical or complex medicinal treatment for sicknesses or issues affecting the ear, nose, or throat, a Pediatric otolaryngologist has the experience and capabilities to treat.

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Pediatric Primary Care physicians provide care to the infants, children, and adolescents including well-child care, monitoring physical and psychosocial growth and development, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of common pediatric acute and chronic disorders.

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Maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) also called perinatology is a branch of medicine that involved in managing health concerns of the mother and fetus prior to, during, and shortly after pregnancy. Maternal-fetal medicine specialists are physicians specialized in the field of obstetrics; they may do prenatal tests, provide treatments, and perform surgeries.

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Physical medicine and rehabilitation (known as physiatry), is a medical subspecialty that intends to increase and reinstate functional ability and optimization of the quality of life to those with physical disabilities or impairments. A physician who has completed training in this field called a physiatrist.

Pediatric physiatrists are responsible for the medical management and rehabilitation care of children with spinal cord injuries, pain syndromes, muscle injuries, bone injuries, ligaments, non-healing wounds, neuromuscular disorders, brain injuries, and musculoskeletal conditions. In treating these patients, physiatrists lead a multidisciplinary team of physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech and language therapists, nurses, neurologists and neurosurgeons, psychologists, orthopedic surgeons, nutritionists, and social workers.

Some of the common conditions pediatric physiatrists treat are:
Cerebral palsy, neuromuscular disorders, spina bifida, spinal cord injuries, acquired brain injuries, limb deficiencies, gait abnormalities, musculoskeletal conditions, and brachial plexus palsy.
 

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Sleep medicine is a medical specialty involved in the diagnosis, management and therapy of sleep disorders and disturbances.

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Social pediatrics describes child health or illness, within their society, school, environment, and family. Social pediatrics takes a holistic approach towards child health and incorporates other disciplines into its practice, such as social sciences and the law. This leads to a better understanding of the overall context and the sources of stress that affect a child’s development and well-being. The approach relies on collective know-how to come up with a clear diagnosis as time goes on that depends on everyone’s participation, including the children and their extended families.

A specialized doctor in Social Pediatrics will cure the problems relatively by targetting the child’s needs and focuses on the strengths of the child, the extended family and the community. It brings together expertise from the medical, legal and social science fields in order to detect reduce or eliminate sources of toxic stress or risk factors that affect the development and well-being of children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

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Sports medicine is a medical subspecialty concerned with physical exercise and the prevention and treatment of injuries associated with sports. Physicians are specialist medical doctors who completed medical school, appropriate residency training with a primary specialization in sports medicine or 'sports and exercise medicine.

Some of the sports medicine organizations include

  • American College of Sports Medicine
  • American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
  • American Medical Society for Sports Medicine
  • National Athletic Trainers' Association
  • Canadian Athletic Therapists' Association
  • American Medical Association
  • International Society of Arthroscopy, Knee Surgery and Sports Medicine
  • International Association for Dance Medicine and Science
  • British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine
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Pediatrics cardiac care and surgery is the sub-division of internal medicine, which deals with the surgery of internal organs in the region of the thorax (the chest). In general, it is the treating conditions of heart disease and lung disease in children. Cardiac surgery might be combined with thoracic surgery and/or vascular surgery and called cardiovascular/ cardiothoracic/cardiovascular thoracic surgery.

  • Early approaches to heart malformations
  • Lung volume reduction surgery
  • Modern beating-heart surgery
  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Risks of cardiac surgery
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